Tungsten Oxide Ceramic Semiconductor
Semiconductors are crystalline or amorphous solids with distinct electrical characteristics. They are of high resistance - higher than typical resistance materials, but still of much lower resistance than insulators. Their resistance decreases as their temperature increases, which is behavior opposite to that of a metal. Finally, their conducting properties may be altered in useful ways by the deliberate introduction ("doping") of impurities into the crystal structure, which lowers its resistance but also permits the creation of semiconductor junctions between differently-doped regions of the crystal. The behavior of charge carriers at these junctions is the basis of diodes, transistors and all modern electronics.
Tungsten(VI) oxide, also known as tungsten trioxide or tungstic anhydride, WO3, is a chemical compound containing oxygen and the transition metal tungsten. It is obtained as an intermediate in the recovery of tungsten from its minerals. Tungsten ores are treated with alkalis to produce WO3. Further reaction with carbon or hydrogen gas reduces tungsten trioxide to the pure metal.
Tungsten trioxide is used for many purposes in everyday life. It is frequently used in industry to manufacture tungstates for x-ray screen phosphors, for fireproofing fabrics and in gas sensors. Due to its rich yellow color, WO3 is also used as a pigment in ceramics and paints.
In recent years, tungsten trioxide has been employed in the production of electrochromic windows, or smart windows. These windows are electrically switchable glass that change light transmission properties with an applied voltage. This allows the user to tint their windows, changing the amount of heat or light passing through.
Tungsten trioxide (WO3) is a functional material with broad application prospects in various areas such as electrochromic, toxic gas detection and photochemical catalysis that has been studied systematically. In recent years, it has been found WO3 ceramics exhibit good nonlinear electrical properties with features of low voltage and low current. WO3 has high dielectric constant, therefore it can be used as a new type of ceramic semiconductor material applied in the field of microelectronics.